Editing Services

Blue Minerva offers editing assistance at different levels that can be customized to your specific needs.

The level of editing your work should go through depends on several things:

  • What kind of writing it is

  • Your overall vision for the project

  • What you plan to do with it

  • Your budget



If you’ve got a solid draft that you’re confident is ready for fine-tuning, a copyedit is the essential next step. Checking text at the most basic level is known as light copyediting. This includes the following:

  • Checking for correct and consistent spelling, grammar, capitalization, and punctuation

  • Checking for correct word choice

  • Querying when something is unclear or seems inaccurate

  • Conforming text to a particular style guide or house style

  • Checking figure and table numbers and references

  • Checking for missing copy

  • Preparing and maintaining a style sheet to aid in consistency


Medium copyediting gets more detailed. Most projects that are ready for a copyedit need this level of attention. In addition to everything covered in light copyediting, it can include the following:

  • Changing text and headings to achieve parallel structure

  • Marking and possibly suggesting replacements for inappropriate, ambiguous, or incorrect words or phrases

  • In nonfiction, ensuring that key terms are handled consistently and that summaries and end-of-chapter questions reflect content, and checking footnotes, citations, and front and end matter for content and proper formatting

  • In fiction, tracking the continuity of plot, setting, and character traits, and querying discrepancies

  • Changing passive voice to active where needed

  • When there is more than one author, enforcing a consistent style and tone


In heavy copyediting, the editor improves the text’s flow and readability:

  • Eliminating wordiness, clichés, repetition, and unnecessary jargon, and replacing with suitable language if needed

  • Eliminating unnecessary detail and unrelated material

  • Smoothing transitions and moving sentences, paragraphs, or sections to improve readability and impact

  • Assigning new levels to heads to achieve logical structure

  • Suggesting and sometimes implementing additional material

  • Enforcing a uniform level, tone, and focus

  • Checking for consistency and logical structure

  • Reworking, and possibly rewriting, text to ensure it delivers a clear and cohesive message

  • Organizing and possibly creating headers and subheads for logical flow

  • Suggesting additional elements, such as timelines, callout boxes, sidebars, a glossary, an index, and illustrations


Developmental Editing

If you’ve got a great first or second draft, but need some help with it–to find your focus, improve the structure, get the storylines better organized, or make your characters jump off the page–your work could probably benefit from developmental editing. This step is done before a copyedit. It includes many of the tasks outlined for heavy copyediting, but for the most part, the text is not fine-tuned for language or grammar. Instead, the focus is on the content of the work as a whole, and the editor’s goal is to help provide the author guidance on how to rewrite the draft. The editor will read through the manuscript with wider questions in mind:

  • What are the overall goals for the project?

  • What message is being conveyed?

  • Will the reader understand the message?

  • Will it resonate with its intended audience?


Developmental editing in fiction is an intense look at every big-picture aspect, such as:

  • Are the characters realistic and sympathetic? Do they have clear goals?

  • Do the antagonist’s goals conflict with the protagonist’s?

  • Are the plotlines clear, and does each scene advance the plot?

  • Are all the plotlines resolved at the end?

  • Is there sufficient tension to carry the story forward? Are there places where the reader might lose interest?

  • Do the emotions of each scene make sense and contribute to the story?

  • Are all the scenes integral to the story or character development? Should any be moved or cut?

  • Are the characters distinct from each other? Are any similar enough that they can be combined or cut?


I offer two levels of developmental editing:

  • A manuscript evaluation, in which a letter is provided that details the major big-picture issues that, when resolved, will result in a far more polished draft. The editor may also suggest possible solutions for overcoming specific problems.

  • A full developmental edit. In addition to the letter to the author, the editor provides line edits in the manuscript, pointing out specific examples of issues and suggesting changes where applicable.

If you're looking for something a little different, I can also work with you to build a custom set of services. 

A helpful tool that may be created as part of a developmental edit is a book map, which tracks character development, scene changes, and plotlines in a concise visual format. This is a great way to find the work’s strengths and the areas where it can be improved.



Proofreading is the final step, performed after copyediting has been completed and the copy is typeset and formatted for printing. A proofreader’s exact duties can vary but generally involve the following:

  • Checking the copy word for word against the copyedited manuscript to ensure all edits were incorporated

  • Ensuring no glaring errors were missed in the copyedit stage

  • Checking for conformity to type specifications, such as font, margins, and word spacing



So How Much Does It Cost?


A project's pricing depends on several factors:

  • The project's length

  • The complexity of the material

  • The amount and type of work requested

  • How quickly the work must be completed


Reach out via email or fill in the Contact form, and I will work with you to tailor a specific set of services for your project.